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In chemistryan alcohol is any organic compound in which the hydroxyl functional group — O H is bound to a carbon. It is these simple monoalcohols that are the subject of this article. The suffix -ol appears in the IUPAC chemical name of all substances where the hydroxyl group is the functional group with the highest priority. When a higher priority group is present in the compound, the prefix hydroxy- is used in its IUPAC name. The suffix alcohol article in non-IUPAC names such as paracetamol or cholesterol also typically indicates that the substance is an alcohol.

However, many substances that contain hydroxyl functional groups particularly sugars, such as glucose and sucrose have names which include neither the suffix -olnor the prefix hydroxy.

Alcohol distillation likely alcohol article in India. The Arab chemist, al-Kindiunambiguously described the distillation of wine in a treatise alcohol article as "The Book of the chemistry of Perfume and Distillations". The Persian physicianalchemistpolymath and philosopher Rhazes CE — CE [9] is credited with the discovery of alcohol article. Alcohol was originally used for the very fine powder produced by the sublimation of the natural mineral stibnite to form alcohol article trisulfide Sb 2 S 3.

It was considered to be the essence or "spirit" of this mineral. It was used as an antisepticeyeliner, and cosmetic. The meaning of alcohol was extended to distilled substances in general, alcohol article, and then narrowed to ethanol, when "spirits" was a synonym for hard liquor.

Bartholomew Traheronin his translation of John of Vigointroduces the word as a term used by "barbarous" Moorish authors for "fine powder. The Lexicon Chymicumby William Johnson glosses the word as "antimonium sive stibium. Libavius in Alchymia refers to "vini alcohol vel vinum alcalisatum". The term ethanol was inventedcombining the word ethane with the "-ol" ending of "alcohol". IUPAC nomenclature is used in scientific publications and where precise identification of the substance is important, alcohol article in cases where the relative complexity alcohol article the molecule does not make such a systematic name unwieldy.

In naming simple alcohols, the name of the alkane chain loses the terminal e and adds the suffix -ole, alcohol article.

If a higher priority group is present such as an aldehydeketoneor carboxylic acidthen the prefix hydroxy- is used, [17] e, alcohol article. In cases where the OH functional group is bonded to an sp 2 carbon on an aromatic ring the molecule is known as a phenolalcohol article, and is named using the IUPAC rules for naming phenols. In other less formal contexts, an alcohol is often called with the name of the corresponding alkyl group followed by the word "alcohol", e.

Propyl alcohol may be n -propyl alcohol or isopropyl alcoholdepending on whether the hydroxyl group is bonded to the end or middle carbon on the straight propane chain. As described under systematic naming, if another group on the molecule takes priority, the alcohol moiety is often indicated using the "hydroxy-" prefix. Alcohols are alcohol article classified into primary, secondary sec-s-and tertiary tert-t-based upon the number of carbon atoms connected to the carbon atom that bears the hydroxyl functional group.

In these shorthands, R, R', and R" represent substituentsalkyl or other attached, generally organic groups. In archaic nomenclature, alcohols can be named as derivatives of methanol using "-carbinol" as the ending, alcohol article. Alcohols have a long history of myriad uses. For simple mono-alcohols, which is the focus on this article, the following are most important industrial alcohols: [23]. The combined capacity of the other alcohols is about the same, distributed roughly equally.

With respect to acute toxicity, simple alcohols have low acute toxicities. Doses of several milliliters are tolerated. Methanol and ethanol are less acutely toxic, alcohol article. All alcohols are mild skin irritants.

The metabolism of methanol and alcohol article glycol is affected alcohol article the presence of ethanol, which has a higher affinity for liver alcohol dehydrogenase.

In this way methanol will be excreted intact in urine. In general, the hydroxyl group makes alcohols polar. Those groups can form hydrogen bonds to one another and to most other compounds. Owing to the presence of the polar OH alcohols are more water-soluble than simple hydrocarbons.

Methanol, alcohol article, ethanol, and propanol are miscible in water. Butanolwith a four-carbon chain, is moderately soluble. Because of hydrogen bondingalcohols tend to have higher boiling points than comparable hydrocarbons and ethers. The boiling point alcohol article the alcohol ethanol is Simple alcohols are found widely in nature.

Ethanol is most prominent because it is the product of fermentation, alcohol article, a major energy-producing pathway, alcohol article. The other simple alcohols are formed in only trace amounts. More complex alcohols are pervasive, as manifested in sugars, some amino acids, and fatty acids, alcohol article.

In the Ziegler processlinear alcohols are produced from ethylene and triethylaluminium followed by oxidation and hydrolysis. The process generates a range of alcohols that are separated by distillation.

Many higher alcohols are produced by hydroformylation of alkenes followed by hydrogenation. When alcohol article to a terminal alkene, as is common, alcohol article, one typically obtains a linear alcohol: [23]. Such processes give fatty alcoholswhich are useful for detergents. Some low molecular weight alcohols alcohol article industrial importance are produced by the addition of water to alkenes, alcohol article.

Ethanol, isopropanol, 2-butanol, and tert-butanol are produced by this general method. Two implementations are employed, the direct and indirect methods. The direct method avoids the formation of stable intermediates, typically using acid catalysts. In the indirect method, alcohol article alkene is converted to the sulfate esterwhich is subsequently hydrolyzed, alcohol article.

The direct hydration using ethylene ethylene hydration [27] or other alkenes from cracking of fractions of distilled crude oil.

Hydration is alcohol article used industrially to produce the diol ethylene glycol from ethylene oxide. For instance, such a process might proceed by the conversion of sucrose by the enzyme invertase into glucose and fructosethen the conversion of glucose by the enzyme complex zymase into ethanol and carbon dioxide.

Several species of the benign bacteria in the intestine use fermentation as a form of anaerobic metabolism, alcohol article. This metabolic reaction produces ethanol as a waste product, alcohol article. Thus, human bodies contain some quantity of alcohol endogenously produced by these bacteria.

In alcohol article cases, this can be sufficient to cause " auto-brewery syndrome " in which intoxicating quantities of alcohol are produced. Like ethanol, butanol can be produced by fermentation processes. The bacterium Clostridium acetobutylicum can feed on cellulose to produce butanol on an industrial scale. Primary alkyl alcohol article react with aqueous NaOH or KOH mainly to primary alcohols in nucleophilic aliphatic substitution.

Secondary and especially tertiary alkyl halides will give the elimination alkene alcohol article instead. Grignard reagents react with carbonyl groups to secondary and tertiary alcohols.

Related reactions are the Barbier reaction and the Nozaki-Hiyama reaction, alcohol article. Aldehydes or ketones are reduced with sodium borohydride or lithium aluminium hydride after an acidic workup. Another reduction by aluminiumisopropylates is the Meerwein-Ponndorf-Verley reduction. Alkenes engage in an acid catalysed hydration reaction using concentrated sulfuric acid as a catalyst that gives usually secondary or tertiary alcohols.

The hydroboration-oxidation and oxymercuration-reduction of alkenes are more reliable in organic synthesis. Alkenes react with NBS and water in halohydrin formation reaction. Amines can be converted to diazonium saltsalcohol article are then hydrolyzed. With a pK a of around 16—19, they are, in general, slightly weaker acids than water. The acidity of alcohols is strongly affected by solvation. In the gas phase, alcohols are more acidic than is water.

The OH group is not a good leaving group in nucleophilic substitution reactions, so neutral alcohols do not react in such reactions. For instance, tertiary alcohols react with hydrochloric acid to produce tertiary alkyl halideswhere the hydroxyl group is replaced by a chlorine atom by unimolecular nucleophilic substitution. If primary or secondary alcohols are to be reacted with hydrochloric acidan activator such as zinc chloride is needed. In alternative fashion, the conversion may be performed directly using thionyl chloride, alcohol article.

Alcohols may, likewise, be converted to alkyl bromides using hydrobromic acid or phosphorus tribromidefor example:, alcohol article. In the Barton-McCombie deoxygenation an alcohol is deoxygenated to an alkane with tributyltin hydride or a trimethylborane -water complex in a radical substitution reaction, alcohol article.

Meanwhile, the oxygen atom has lone pairs of nonbonded electrons that render it weakly basic in the presence of alcohol article acids such as sulfuric acid. For example, with methanol:, alcohol article. Upon treatment with strong acids, alcohols undergo the E1 elimination reaction to produce alkenes. The reaction, in general, obeys Zaitsev's Rulewhich states that the most stable usually the most substituted alkene is formed. Tertiary alcohols eliminate easily at just above room temperature, but primary alcohols require a higher temperature.

This is a diagram of acid catalysed dehydration of ethanol to produce ethylene :. A more controlled elimination reaction is the with carbon disulfide and iodomethane, alcohol article.

Alcohol and carboxylic acids react in the so-called Fischer esterification. The reaction usually requires a catalystsuch as concentrated sulfuric acid:, alcohol article. The direct oxidation of primary alcohols to carboxylic acids normally proceeds via the corresponding aldehyde, which is transformed via an aldehyde hydrate R-CH OH 2 by reaction with water before it can be further oxidized to the carboxylic acid.

Reagents useful for the transformation of primary alcohols to aldehydes are normally also suitable for the oxidation of secondary alcohols to ketones. These include Collins reagent and Dess-Martin periodinane. The direct oxidation of primary alcohols to carboxylic acids can be carried out using potassium permanganate or the Jones reagent.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia, alcohol article.


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Aug 20,  · Alcoholism (alcohol use disorder) is a disease that affects over 14 million people in the U.S. Get the facts on the symptoms, treatment, and long-term effects of alcoholism and alcohol abuse. Sep 02,  · Alcohol. More. The Latest. 10 Things About Wyoming. The Equality State is home to fossils, national parks and the fewest people of any state. Sara Clarke Sept. 2, The word "alcohol" is from the Arabic kohl (Arabic: الكحل ‎, romanized: al-kuḥl), a powder used as an eyeliner. Al-is the Arabic definite article, equivalent to the in English. Alcohol was originally used for the very fine powder produced by the sublimation of the natural .