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research paper on crime

Research papers also require the proper citations in the format given by your teacher, so on top of researching and writing you also have to do this. Tips for Writing a Good Research Paper on Crime. If you are stumped into where to start with writing your research paper on crime, you can also try looking for academic writers online to help you. Crime and Punishment Research Papers Crime and Punishment term papers review Dostoevsky's masterpiece of literature. Paper Masters specializes in world literature research topics on classic novels such as Dostoevsky's Crime and viguzgas.ga can have our writers custom write on any theme or topic in Crime and Punishment for your literature course. This sample Crime Mapping Research Paper is published for educational and informational purposes only. Like other free research paper examples, it is not a custom research viguzgas.ga you need help writing your assignment, please use our custom writing services and buy a paper on any of the criminal justice research paper topics. This sample research paper on crime mapping features: + words.


Crime Mapping Research Paper - EssayEmpire


This sample Crime Mapping Research Paper is published for educational and informational purposes only. Like other free research paper examples, it is not a custom research paper. If you need help writing your assignment, please use our custom writing services and buy a paper on any of the criminal justice research paper topics. Theoretical Perspectives in Crime Mapping Research.

Spatial Crime Research and Planning Interventions. Future Directions and Challenges in Crime Mapping. Crime is not a random event, research paper on crime. Criminological research suggests that certain psychological, social, or economic characteristics are associated with higher levels research paper on crime criminal involvement. Furthermore, particular lifestyles and patterns of activity place individuals at a heightened risk for victimization.

Crime fluctuates temporally as well: More crimes occur in the evening as opposed to the morning, on weekends as opposed to weekdays, and in summer months as opposed to winter months, research paper on crime. It comes as no surprise that spatial patterns of crime exist as well. Crime mapping is the process through which crime analysts and researchers use location information about crime events to detect spatial patterns in criminal activity. Early crime mapping efforts typically involved placing physical markers, such as pins, on maps to designate the locations where crimes occurred.

Patterns of criminal activity were determined primarily through visual inspection of these maps. With the advances in computing, geographic information system GIS software, research paper on crime, such as MapInfo and ArcGIS, enables researchers to convert geographic information addresses or global positioning system [GPS] coordinates into coordinates used with virtual maps.

Researchers and crime analysts can then use a number of analytic software packages to examine and detect patterns of criminal activity from these virtual maps. This research paper is designed to offer an overview of the field of crime mapping. First, the history of crime mapping is briefly discussed. After this, a brief overview of several theoretical perspectives that have been used to understand the spatial patterns of crime is provided.

Following this, some of the major findings in spatial crime analyses are discussed, particularly in regard to the relevance of implementation strategies designed to combat crime. The research paper concludes with recommendations for future directions in crime mapping research. Interestingly, the earliest efforts at crime mapping can be traced to the roots of the discipline of criminology itself.

In the early 19th century, a number of studies examined the distribution of crime in France and England. Brantingham and Brantingham a provided an overview of some of the findings of the main studies from this era. Guerry and Quetelet mapped crimes in France at the department level and found that crimes were not distributed evenly across departments. They also found that there was stability over time in both areas with high crime and areas with low crime over time.

These findings were echoed in England with studies by Plint, Glyde, and Mayhew. They found that the zone adjacent to the central business district, the zone of transition, perpetually suffered from the highest rates of juvenile delinquency and other social problems regardless of the specific ethnic group occupying the zone at the time. This research was instrumental in popularizing social disorganization theory and inspired a number of similar mapping projects in Chicago; Philadelphia; Richmond, Virginia; Cleveland, Ohio; Birmingham, Alabama; Denver, Colorado; Research paper on crime, Washington; and other cities, research paper on crime.

Accompanying these early efforts in crime research paper on crime were developments in the profession of policing that provided additional opportunities for crime mapping. In the late 19th and early 20th centuries, the professionalization movement in policing encouraged police organizations to compile statistics documenting the extent of crime in their jurisdictions. During this time, many agencies began compiling crime statistics and conducting analyses of crime data.

Crime mapping was primarily done using pin maps, which were very time-consuming and provided only a basic visualization of crime patterns. The late s and early research paper on crime were critical for the development of crime mapping. Also around this time, the U. These advances were necessary for the development of GIS programs used in crime mapping. The use of GIS programs for mapping has been the most important advance in the field of crime mapping.

There are several important advantages in using virtual maps instead of physical maps. First, computers have dramatically reduced the time and effort required to produce crime maps. Given the relatively low cost and user-friendliness of many of these software programs, it no longer requires a substantial investment for agencies that wish to engage in crime mapping. Second, these GIS programs reduce the amount of error associated with assigning geographic coordinates to crime events. Third, virtual maps are much more flexible than physical maps, allowing researchers and crime analysts to compare the geographic distribution of crimes against other characteristics of the area under investigation e.

Research paper on crime, GIS and other spatial analysis software provide powerful statistical tools for analyzing and detecting patterns of criminal activity that cannot be detected through simple visual inspection. Academic interests in the field of criminology also began to shift during this time. While many criminologists were concerned with causes of crime that were outside the sphere of influence of police agencies e.

The combination of the shift in theoretical focus in criminology and the shift in the philosophy of policing yielded new opportunities for crime mapping and initiated a resurgence of research on both the geography of crime as well as crime prevention strategies involving crime mapping. Although the first instances of computerized crime mapping occurred in the mids in St.

Louis, Missouri, the adoption of computerized crime mapping across the United States remained relatively slow. The rate of adoption of crime mapping among departments greatly increased as desktop computers became cheaper and more powerful and GIS software became easier to use and more powerful. The Compstat program, which started in in New York City, emphasized crime mapping as a central component to strategic police planning and helped popularize crime mapping among police agencies.

With assistance from the Office of Community Oriented Police Services and the National Institute of Justice, a large number of departments adopted computerized crime mapping practices. As previously noted, the development of tools and techniques of crime mapping have been accompanied by an expanding body of criminological theory oriented toward explaining the geographic patterns of crime.

It is important, when discussing theories about the spatial distribution of crime, to distinguish between theories that explain criminality and theories that explain criminal events. Traditional criminological approaches tend to emphasize individual-level social and psychological characteristics as the main factors that lead to criminality, that is, the propensity toward committing criminal acts. These theories focus predominately on explaining why offenders engage and persist in criminal lifestyles.

Alternatively, theories that discuss the spatial distribution of crime focus on explaining the patterns seen in criminal events, that is, the occurrences of crime. These theories focus less attention on the motivations of offenders and more attention on factors of the environment that promote crime, research paper on crime.

Although a number of theories have been proposed to explain why particular neighborhoods experience high crime rates, social disorganization theory has been the most influential. Social disorganization theory, as first proposed by Shaw and McKaycan be seen as the first attempt to construct a criminological theory of place.

As the capacity of a community to regulate the behavior of its members decreases, the potential for illegal activity increases. A central tenet of social disorganization theory is that structural conditions within a neighborhood attenuate the social ties that promote social cohesion and enable community members to exercise social control. Economic depravation creates undesirable living conditions that promote residential instability and population heterogeneity. Neighborhoods that have low collective efficacy are likely to experience high levels of crime.

To Cohen research paper on crime Felson, crime is a predatory activity and, as such, can subsist only near patterns research paper on crime legitimate activity, research paper on crime. Therefore, to research paper on crime crime patterns it is necessary to understand the research paper on crime of conventional routine activities around which crime is organized.

Felson explained that suitable targets have value to the offender, are visible to the offender, are easily moved or removed, and are accessible by the offender, research paper on crime.

The research paper on crime of guardianship has also been extended and includes intimate handlers, who are responsible for monitoring the behavior of offenders; guardians, who are responsible for protecting targets; and place managers, who are responsible for monitoring and controlling access to particular research paper on crime see Eck, In applications of this theory to spatial crime analysis, research paper on crime, structural features of the city, patterns of land use, research paper on crime, and the routine activities associated with particular locations can concentrate motivated offenders and suitable targets into areas with limited guardianship.

This, in turn, fosters opportunities for criminal victimization. A couple of important theories have been proposed to explain why criminal events occur more frequently at particular sites. Jeffery was one of the first criminologists to suggest that immediate features of the environment affected crime, with his Crime Prevention Through Environmental Design CPTED approach. This approach emphasizes target hardening and surveillance. Contemporaneously, research paper on crime, Newman also emphasized the role of the environment in creating crime with his defensible space theory.

Newman argued, in regard to public housing, that it is possible to design the use of space to enhance territorial functioning and to improve the natural surveillance in these environments. In the current formulation of CPTED, Crowe discussed three strategies that are used to prevent crime: 1 access control to prevent contact between the offender and the target, 2 surveillance to monitor areas and discourage offenders, and 3 territorial reinforcement to promote feelings of ownership among users of the space.

CPTED is usually employed along with situational crime prevention discussed in the next section to formulate practical strategies for reducing crime. This approach assumes that offenders possess limited rationality, meaning that they make rational calculations of the costs and benefits associated with crime but are constrained in their decision making by time, research paper on crime, information, context, ability, and prior experiences.

This perspective seeks to understand the series of decisions made by the offender that result in a criminal event. Interestingly, unlike many other theories of offending, the rational choice perspective emphasizes that different decisions are involved in the production of different types of crime.

Rational choice explanations of criminal offending differ by crime type, instead of ignoring these differences in favor of a general motivation toward engaging in crime, as is common in many other criminological theories. Spatial applications of the rational choice perspective emphasize offender movement, search patterns, and target selection processes that determine the spatial patterns observed in crime.

Situational crime prevention Clarke, refers to the application of the rational choice perspective toward developing policy recommendations to reduce crime. Situational crime prevention emphasizes situational-level interventions toward increasing the efforts associated with committing a crime, increasing the perceived risks for engaging in crime, reducing the anticipated rewards from crime, and removing the excuses associated with crime Clarke, As with the CPTED and defensible space theories, the policy applications of situational crime prevention focus on practical strategies that are customized to specific settings.

Although the successes of this approach are well documented, rarely do the methods used in these studies permit broad conclusions regarding the effectiveness of this approach at reducing crime see Clarke,for a discussion. Brantingham and Brantingham b, developed a perspective referred to as crime pattern theory that incorporates elements of the rational choice, routine activities, research paper on crime, and other spatial perspectives on crime. According to this perspective, research paper on crime, individuals create a cognitive map of their spatial environment with which they are familiar through their routine activities.

The action space of an individual consists of a nodes, the destinations of travel, such as work, home, and entertainment locations, and b paths, the travel routes that individuals take to move from one node to another. Through repeated movement along paths to various nodes, individuals develop an awareness space consisting of the areas in a city with which they are familiar.

According to this theory, offenders search for suitable targets primarily within this awareness space by comparing potential targets against templates, or mental conceptualizations of the characteristics of appropriate targets.

One interesting application of this theory is geographic profiling, research paper on crime, which attempts to narrow the scope of police investigations by using information on repeated crimes to identify the awareness space of a repeat criminal Rossmo, As previously indicated, a large number of studies have demonstrated that criminal events are spatially concentrated.

Although the extent of concentration differs between studies, all empirical evidence suggests that a small number of places account for the majority of crime within any given city. Sherman and colleagues popularized the term hot spot to describe these areas where crime is concentrated.

The detection and explanation of these hot spots is a major concern of research in crime mapping. Hot-spot analysis is currently very popular among police agencies because it provides a method to coordinate interventions in emerging problem areas. A number of studies have demonstrated the benefits of hot-spot analysis to help coordinate police responses to crime.

For example, in a randomized experiment in Minneapolis, Sherman and Weisburd found that concentrated patrol efforts in hot-spot areas produced a significant decline in calls for service.

Police responses to crime are not limited to enhanced patrol.

 

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research paper on crime

 

Research papers also require the proper citations in the format given by your teacher, so on top of researching and writing you also have to do this. Tips for Writing a Good Research Paper on Crime. If you are stumped into where to start with writing your research paper on crime, you can also try looking for academic writers online to help you. Research within librarian-selected research topics on Criminology and Crime from the Questia online library, including full-text online books, academic journals, magazines, newspapers and more. Crime and Punishment Research Papers Crime and Punishment term papers review Dostoevsky's masterpiece of literature. Paper Masters specializes in world literature research topics on classic novels such as Dostoevsky's Crime and viguzgas.ga can have our writers custom write on any theme or topic in Crime and Punishment for your literature course.